An introduction to the thermal concepts and intermolecular interactions

It is believed that at any instant of time, the electron cloud of the molecule may be distorted so that an instantaneous dipole or momentary dipole that is, a dipole for a short while is produced in which one part of the molecule is slightly more negative than the rest.

A simple example is that of HCl in which chlorine being more electronegative acquires a slight negative charge whereas the hydrogen end becomes slightly positively charged. The positive pole of one molecule is thus attracted by the negative pole of the other molecule.

These are then attracted to each other exactly in the same way as the permanent dipoles. In a liquid, there is a reasonable balance between the attractive intermolecular forces and thermal energy.

The origin of these forces was proposed by Fritz London in These forces are thought to arise from the motion of the electrons. Hence, they exhibit very low compressibility. In gases, the intermolecular forces of attraction are weakest while thermal energy is highest manifested as random translatory motion of molecules.

The existence of these forces was studied by Keesom in The strength of this interaction depends upon the charge and size of the ion and the magnitude of dipole moment and size of the polar molecule. Further, hydrogen bonding is only a special type of dipole-dipole attraction shown only by limited number of elements.

It may be pointed out that since all molecules contain electrons, London forces also exist in the polar molecules.

Intermolecular and Surface Forces

The forces of attraction between the induced momentary dipoles are called London Dispersion Forces. A solid has rigidity because thermal motion is too weak to overpower the strong intermolecular forces of attraction. Intermolecular Forces, that is, the forces of interaction between the molecules of that substance which try to bring the molecules closer, Thermal Energy possessed by the molecule due to temperature which results in the movement of the molecules and hence tries to keep them apart.

Polar molecules have permanent dipoles. The strength of these interactions depends upon the charge on the ion and the case with which the non-polar molecule gets polarized. That is why they have no definite shape.

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An introduction to the thermal concepts and intermolecular interactions

Hence, these forces are also called Keesom forces and the effect is called orientation effect. The origin of these forces in case of helium as shown in figure below: The reason for the origin of these forces is quite obvious.

Ion-Dipole Interactions This is the attraction between an ion cation or anion and a polar molecule. Over a period of time a very short period of timeelectrons move rapidly, the effects of these momentary dipoles cancel so that a non-polar molecule has no permanent dipole moment. A solid melts on heating because on heating, the thermal motion increases.

On the other hand in gases, there are large empty spaces between the molecules, therefore, they possess high compressibility. The dipole-dipole interactions then take place among the HCl molecules Fig.

London dispersion forces operate only over very short distances. In a gas, thermal energy is so high that the molecules cannot come close together.

Intermolecular Forces vs Thermal Interactions

In both liquids and solid, their molecules exist together that is, both of them are condensed state of matter having sufficiently strong intermolecular forces of attraction. Thus, though both have nearly same molecular mass, the melting and boiling point of H2S are higher than those of PH3.

Definition Of Intermolecular Forces And Thermal Interactions

Intermolecular Forces Versus Thermal Energy Whether a substance will exist as a solid or a liquid or a gas is the result of competition between: So the molecules must be really very close in order for the forces to have any effect.

Hence, they are termed as London forces.Intermolecular Forces vs. Thermal Interactions Intermolecular force is the attractive force acting between the neighbouring molecules. Whereas the thermal energy is the measure of the sum of the kinetic energy of the individual molecules and particles.

An introduction to the thermal concepts and intermolecular interactions November 19, Uncategorized Simply moisten the bird's head with water, place it next to a full glass of water and watch as the bird periodically dunks its head into the glass for a 'drink'.

Intermolecular Forces vs Thermal Interactions Introduction Intermolecular forces tend to keep the molecules together. But the thermal energy of the molecules tends to keep them apart.

Three states of matter are the result of balance between intermolecular forces and the thermal energy of the molecules. Many intermolecular forces can contribute to solvation, including hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole forces, and Van Der Waals forces. Ion-Dipole Interactions.

Another common example of these forces at work is an ion-dipole interaction, which arises when water solvates ions in solution. Definition Of Intermolecular Forces And Thermal Interactions Intermolecular Forces are longest-ranged (act strongly over a large distance) when they are electrostatic.

Interaction of Charge Monopoles (simple charges) is the longest-ranged electrostatic force. Thermal concepts and intermolecular interactions The speed (or energy, since the two are effectively the samething) distribution curve, with spee.

An introduction to the thermal concepts and intermolecular interactions
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