Citing sources for research papers

Electronic Sources E-book Author s last name, first initials. Furthermore, if you use figures, illustrations, or graphical material, either directly or in modified form, that you did not yourself create or design, you need to acknowledge the sources of those figures.

Retrieved from Name of Agency or Department website if different than the author: Article on a Website Author s of article. The Sun is pretty big Millerp. Therefore the reader can get that book immediately if they want to and check that you have copied the quote correctly, or simply read the book, if they have the interest.

It is most widely used in history and economics as well as some social sciences. For Books List all authors by last name and initials, separated by commas if there are more than two authors. Although it looks pretty straightforward, you will run into some unusual cases, like books with more than one author, books with no author, websites, interviews, etc.

Later citations to the same person can be shortened, as in: It should be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author. Parenthetical referencing is recommended by both the British Standards Institution and the Modern Language Association.

In ACS style references are numbered in the text and in the reference list, and numbers are repeated throughout the text as needed. You only need to include the page number in the citation if you are quoting directly, or if the source is very long and the specific fact or idea you are citing can only be found on a specific page.

Title of the standard Standard No. Science moves forward only by building upon the work of others. Development of a brief measure of college stress: The exact format is not critical, but consistency and completeness is. Title of Newspaper, Page numbers.

Why should I do it? If the article does not have a DOI or a journal homepage, simply provide the database or website retrieval information. One way to do it is this: If your source of information is from a personal verbal communication, you would use the following format for the first citation from that person: Then put the year of publication, the title of the book in italics if possiblethe publisher, the city, and the number of pages in the book.

Go to the section on "Documentation: Legal citation The Bluebook is a citation system traditionally used in American academic legal writing, and the Bluebook or similar systems derived from it are used by many courts. Direct quotations whether in written or oral formats includes stories, speeches, fiction and nonfiction Paraphrased quotations these are quotes whose words you have changed somewhat Statistical Data numbers about things Images that are attributed to someone includes cartoons, photos, maps, artwork, computer graphics-but not free "clip art" Song lyrics Original ideas that are attributed to someone else, even if you put them in your own words How do I do it?

If the reference you are citing has more than two authors, use the following format: Where Wikipedia does not mandate a specific style, editors should not attempt to convert Wikipedia to their own preferred style, nor should they edit articles for the sole purpose of converting them to their preferred style, or removing examples of, or references to, styles which they dislike.

Shortened notes using titles rather than publication dates would look like this in the article: In one major variant, that used by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASMEcitation numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather than as superscripts.

Several forms of short citation are used in Wikipedia; see Short citations above. Retrieved from URL of profile Elementary school teachers.

This style of citations and bibliographical format uses parenthetical referencing with author-page Smith or author-[short] title-page Smith, Contingencies 42 in the case of more than one work by the same author within parentheses in the text, keyed to an alphabetical list of sources on a "Works Cited" page at the end of the paper, as well as notes footnotes or endnotes.

Columbia Style offers models for both the humanities and the sciences.A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source.

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It also gives your readers the information necessary to find. Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research document.

In this case, only include the source you did consult in your references because you did not read the original document. Citation Machineā„¢ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use.

Cite sources in APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and Harvard for free. Citations are not used on disambiguation pages (sourcing for the information given there should be done in the target articles).

Citations are often omitted from the lead section of an article, insofar as the lead summarizes information for which sources are given later in the article, although quotations and controversial statements, particularly if about living.

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Visit the MLA 7th edition guide. Please be aware that automatically generated citations may not provide accurate results.

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Citing sources for research papers
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