MEQs often form a vital component of end-of-course assessments in higher education. Although there is evidence to suggest that well constructed MEQs will test higher order cognitive skills [ 5 ], and that they can test different facets of understanding than MCQs [ 7 ], it is reasonable to ask if MEQ assessments in higher education are well constructed and if they are capable of assessing higher order cognitive skills.
This paper describes such a study and is designed to gauge the effectiveness of the MEQ as a summative test tool in a clinical course. It has long been recognised that in the assessment of clinical competence problem-solving ability has been one of the Modified essay question format difficult areas to measure and quantify [ 1 ].
The aim of the modified essay question is to broadly measure both the absolute amount of knowledge retained by the candidate and the ability of the candidate to use that knowledge to reason through and evaluate clinical problems. The papers for each examination were assembled by one member of Faculty, who gathered contributions from individual clinicians.
Level I, covered knowledge and recall of information, Level II covered comprehension and application, understanding and the ability to interpret data, and Level III tested problem-solving, the use of knowledge and understanding in new circumstances.
Each multiple-choice question was quantified independently as to its level of cognitive skill tested [ 10 ] and its structural validity [ 11 ] by two assessors. Abstract Background Reliable and valid written tests of higher cognitive function are difficult to produce, particularly for the assessment of clinical problem solving.
Entire curricula have been re-designed with this concept in mind. The modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the MCQ frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge.
There was no formal instruction for the contributors on how to construct an MEQ, which would assess higher order cognitive skills, and the examination organiser undertook the final review of the submitted material. The test material consisted of 50 MCQs and three MEQs a total of 8 stages and the questions were designed so that both types would cover similar test material.
An essay might test higher powers of reasoning and judgement but will be time-consuming to mark and risk considerable variation in standards of marking [ 4 ]. Methods Fourth Year clinical students at the University of Adelaide underwent a written test as part of their overall assessment of performance for a nine-week surgical attachment.
Despite criticism, it is undeniable that what problem-based learning sets out to achieve in terms of encouraging and developing the skills of synthesis, evaluation and problem-solving are valued components of a good medical education.
Each modified essay question and their individual components was also categorised independently by the two assessors according to the cognitive level measured by each question and its component parts.
The MCQs had one correct answer and four distractors and were constructed to standard guidelines for MCQ construction [ 89 ]. The modified essay question MEQ is one of several tools developed to try and assess this skill [ 2 ].
It accomplishes this by providing a clinical scenario with a number of steps. Modified Essay Questions MEQs are often used to assess these higher order abilities in preference to other forms of assessment, including multiple-choice questions MCQs.
The MEQs were written by at least 12 separate authors using the standard methodology for developing assessments within the faculty. Such MCQs are capable of withstanding the intellectual and statistical scrutiny imposed by a high stakes exit examination.
Received Apr 11; Accepted Nov The MEQ is designed to sit in between these two test instruments in terms of the ability to test higher cognitive skills and the ease of marking to a consistent standard.
Problem-based learning is used in many teaching institutions and has its supporters and detractors. Methods An analysis of multiple-choice questions and modified essay questions MEQs used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate curriculum was undertaken.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. In total, 33 MEQs made up of stages were collected for analysis. The same test instrument was used at the start of the attachment and on completion.
It is not clear how effectively these questions assess higher order cognitive skills. The inter-rater agreement was calculated using Kappa statistics. This was similar to the percentage of MCQs testing factual recall. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the MEQ to measure higher-order cognitive skills in an undergraduate institution.
In conjunction with the promotion of these skills, an effective assessment process is required. Conclusion Construction of MEQs, which will assess higher order cognitive skills cannot be assumed to be a simple task.Once the type of question is determined, an essay style answer is constructed using the proper type of supporting material.
It is a good idea to make an outline for an answer, and jot down a few key phrases on a piece of scrap paper or in the exam margins prior to writing on the sheet that is turned in to be graded.
Modified Essay Question PAUL STRATFORD and HALYNA PIERCE-FENN This article examines the reliability and validity of the modified essay question. An item modified essay question was developed and pretested on a group of clinical experts.
After the pretest, the modified essay question was administered A criterion referenced format.
Short Answer Questions or Modified Essay Questions—More than a Technical Issue and the remaining three MEQ, and 4) the MEQ in 2) and 3). Percentage correctly answered questions in different.
The Department of Family Medicine at Jefferson Medical College has used the modified essay question as the final examination format for. Basic Essay and Paragraph Format However, flexibility is important.
While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization. Parts of an Essay In the classic question of “nature v.
nurture,” in this case, the answer appears to be both. GYNAECOLOGY TODAY is the result of the combined effort of many contributors comprising of clinical practitioners and academicians who have had several years of experience in teaching and assessing the undergraduate students.Download